EXPLAINER: Why Germany is delaying its nuclear shutdown

Oct 17, 2022, 1:17 PM | Updated: Oct 18, 2022, 2:42 am
FILE - The nuclear power plant (NPP) Isar 2 is pictured in Essenbach, Germany, March 3, 2022. Germa...

FILE - The nuclear power plant (NPP) Isar 2 is pictured in Essenbach, Germany, March 3, 2022. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (Armin Weigel/dpa via AP, File)

(Armin Weigel/dpa via AP, File)

              Demonstrators march in front of the Brandenburg Gate, background, during a demonstration against nuclear power in Berlin, Germany, Saturday, May 28, 2011. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (AP Photo/Gero Breloer)
            
              FILE - Exterior view of the RWE nuclear power plant 'Emsland' in Lingen, western Germany, March 18, 2022. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner, file)
            
              FILE --Water vapor rises from the cooling tower of nuclear power plant of Neckarwestheim in Neckarwestheim, Germany, Aug. 22, 2022. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (AP Photo/Michael Probst,file)
            
              FILE - A little kite is pictured during a protest event of anti-nuclear activists in front of the chancellery in Berlin, Germany, June 6, 2011. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (AP Photo/Michael Sohn, File)
            
              FILE - Hundreds of anti nuclear protesters block the rails near Hitzacker, northern Germany, Nov.7, 2010 . A castor train with nuclear waste is underway from French La Hague to to the nuclear interim storage plant in nearby Gorleben. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (AP Photo/Michael Probst, File)
            
              FILE - Environmental activists of Greenpeace and the "Koala Kollektiv" protest against the European Union's greenwashing of nuclear energy under the Euro sculpture in Frankfurt, Germany, Jan. 11, 2022. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (AP Photo/Michael Probst, File)
            
              FILE - A man with a gas mask protests near the chancellery against nuclear power in the wake of Japan's Fukushima reactor disaster in Berlin, March 26, 2011. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (AP Photo/Markus Schreiber, File)
            
              FILE - This time German Chancellor Angela Merkel speaks during a news conference about German government suspending the decision to extend the life of its nuclear power plants for about three month, in Berlin, Germany,, March 14, 2011. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (AP Photo/Michael Sohn, File)
            
              German Chancellor Olaf Scholz, center, walks through the foyer of the chancellery to welcome Spain's King Felipe VI for a meeting, Berlin, Germany, Monday, Oct. 17, 2022. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (AP Photo/Markus Schreiber)
            
              FILE - The nuclear power plant (NPP) Isar 2 is pictured in Essenbach, Germany, March 3, 2022. German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country's three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April 2023. The move marks another hiccup in the country's long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. (Armin Weigel/dpa via AP, File)

BERLIN (AP) — German Chancellor Olaf Scholz has ordered preparations for all of the country’s three remaining nuclear reactors to continue operating until mid-April. The move marks another hiccup in the country’s long-running plan to end the use of atomic energy. Here is a look at Germany’s politically charged debate on nuclear power.

COLD WAR FISSION

West and East Germany began producing nuclear energy in the 1960s, when it was widely considered a safe and clean alternative to the heavily polluting coal the nation had long relied on for much of its power needs. Dozens of reactors of various types were built over the following decades. The newest plant began operation in 1989 — about a year before reunification.

PROTEST MOVEMENT

Concerns about the risks of nuclear power increased with the Three Mile Island incident in 1979 and the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986. Such fears boosted West Germany’s environmental movement and the newly formed Green party that is now part of Chancellor Olaf Scholz’s governing coalition.

FIRST SHUTDOWN PLAN

A center-left government of Social Democrats and Greens passed a law in 2002 that Germany would build no new nuclear power plants and shut down all existing reactors over the coming decades. The move was part of a broader effort to shift energy production in Germany — known as the Energiewende, or energy transition — away from fossil fuels toward renewable sources such as wind and solar.

SECOND THOUGHTS

A conservative government under Angela Merkel announced in 2010 that Germany would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants, in part to ensure sufficient supply of cheap, low-carbon energy. Once built, nuclear plants produce significantly fewer greenhouse gas emissions than coal- or gas-fired facilities, while providing a constant amount of energy regardless of the weather that solar parks or wind farms can’t always guarantee.

FUKUSHIMA U-TURN

The 2011 incident at Japan’s Fukushima nuclear power plant prompted a swift reversal, with Merkel declaring that Germany would in fact now accelerate its exit from nuclear power and shut down the last remaining plant by the end of 2022. The move had broad support among voters, but critics pointed out that Germany risked blackouts unless renewable energy was massively ramped up. To prevent this from happening, Germany planned to import natural gas — much of it from Russia — as a “bridge fuel” until sufficient solar and wind power was available. Efforts to find a long-term storage site for Germany’s nuclear waste are also still ongoing because nobody wants it.

UKRAINE WAR FALLOUT

With gas flows from Russia sharply reduced due to tensions over the war in Ukraine and global energy prices surging, the German government has been scrambling to prevent an energy crisis this winter. Officials have argued that the three remaining nuclear plants provide only 6% of the country’s electricity and the real shortage is likely to be in the heating sector, which is powered mainly by gas and coal. But with pressure mounting for Germany to keep its own citizens warm, industry running and to show solidarity to neighboring countries, the Greens-led Energy and Environment ministries agreed to extend the lifetime of two of the plants.

FISSION FRACAS

Fearing blackouts and high energy prices, the Free Democrats — also part of Scholz’s government — have lately demanded that all three reactors keep running as long as needed. Experts have questioned whether this would help and the Greens voiced strong opposition. Mounting political pressure and the risk of a government blow-up prompted Scholz to step in Monday and call his junior coalition partners to order with the compromise of keeping the reactors running until April.

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EXPLAINER: Why Germany is delaying its nuclear shutdown